Patents

US 11,322,265: System and Method for Small, Clean, Steady-State Fusion Reactors

Inventors: Samuel A. Cohen, Matthew K. Chu-Cheong

Abstract: According to some embodiments, a system for widening and densifying a scrape-off layer (SOL) in a field reversed configuration (FRC) fusion reactor is disclosed. The system includes a gas box at one end of the reactor including a gas inlet system and walls of suitable heat bearing materials. The system further includes an exit orifice adjoining the gas box, wherein the exit orifice has a controllable radius and length to allow plasma to flow out from the gas box to populate the SOL with the plasma. The system may also include fusion products, which decrease in speed in the plasma in the SOL, allowing energy to be extracted and converted into thrust or electrical power and further allowing ash to be extracted to reduce neutron emissions and maintain high, steady-state fusion power.

US 11,164,681 System and Method for Reducing Heat Loss From FRC Bulk Plasma

Inventor: Samuel A. Cohen

Abstract: According to various embodiments, an FRC fusion reactor is disclosed. The FRC fusion reactor includes a main chamber containing an FRC core and an energy and ash removal shell (EARS). The FRC fusion reactor further includes at least one divertor chamber connected to the main chamber via a divertor throat. The divertor chamber includes a plasma extruder positioned on a major axis of the FRC fusion reactor and a controllable distance along the major axis from the divertor throat. The plasma extruder has a diameter approximately ½ a diameter of the divertor throat and is configured to block plasma flow towards the FRC core to create a gap region between the FRC core and the EARS.

US 11,161,147: System and Method for Acoustic to Electronic Transduction

Inventor: Johan Carlsson

According to various embodiments , a system for acoustic to electronic transduction is disclosed. The system includes a transducing medium configured to convert a received acoustic signal into a transduced electronic signal when a voltage is applied. The system further includes a high-pass filter coupled to the transducing medium, the high-pass filter configured to isolate the transduced signal from the applied voltage.

US 10,923,236: System and Method for Small, Clean, Steady-State Fusion Reactors

Inventors: Sam Cohen, Matthew K. Chu-Cheong
Abstract: A system for widening and densifying a scrape-off layer (SOL) in a field reversed configuration (FRC) fusion reactor is disclosed. The system includes a gas box at one end of the reactor including a gas inlet system and walls of suitable heat bearing materials. The system further includes an exit orifice adjoining the gas box, wherein the exit orifice has a controllable radius and length to allow plasma to flow out from the gas box to populate the SOL with the plasma. The system may also include fusion products, which decrease in speed in the plasma in the SOL, allowing energy to be extracted and converted into thrust or electrical power and further allowing ash to be extracted to reduce neutron emissions and maintain high, steady-state fusion power.

US 10,811,159: Fueling Method for Small, Steady-State, Aneutronic FRC Fusion Reactors

Inventor: Sam Cohen
Abstract: A system and method for fueling a fusion reactor. The system includes a reactor chamber containing a stable plasma including a fusion fuel; a heating system configured to heat the plasma and increase an ion energy of the plasma to a level sufficient for producing net power from fusion reactions in the stable plasma; a plurality of magnets coaxial to the reactor chamber, the plurality of magnets producing a magnetic field sufficient to confine the stable plasma and promote rapid loss of fusion products into a scrape off layer; and a neutral beam injection system configured to inject additional quantities of the fusion fuel to sustain the power output of the fusion reaction.

US 10,677,744: Multi-Cone X-Ray Imaging Bragg Crystal Spectrometer

Inventors: Manfred Bitter, Ken Hill, Philip Efthimion, Luis Delgado-Aparicio, Novimir Pablant, Lan Gao, Brian Kraus
Abstract: Embodiments provide a multi-cone X-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer for spectroscopy of small x-ray sources with a well-defined spectral resolution. The spectrometer includes a glass substrate machined to a multi-cone form; and a thin crystal slab attached to the glass substrate, whereby the multi-cone X-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer provides rotational symmetry of a ray pattern, providing for accurate imaging, for each wavelength in the spectral range of interest. One or more embodiments include a streak camera and/or a gated strip detector. 

US 10,450,943: Otto and Diesel Cycles Employing Spinning Gas

Inventors: Nathaniel Fisch, Vasily Geyko
Abstract: An internal combustion engine is disclosed and includes a main cylinder and main piston that are relatively axially displaceable along a main axis to define a variable volume main working chamber. At least one valve is configured to admit air and fuel into the working chamber forming an air/fuel mixture. The main cylinder is configured to cause the air/fuel mixture in the main cylinder to spin rapidly enough to cause a substantive change in the heat capacity of the air/fuel mixture creating a spinning air/fuel mixture. The main cylinder and main piston are configured to compress the spinning air/fuel mixture to create an ignitable spinning air/fuel mixture. The spinning air/fuel mixture is ignited and the main cylinder and main piston are configured to extract mechanical energy from the ignited spinning air/fuel mixture. An exhaust valve is configured to exhaust combustion products from the main working chamber. 

US 10,300,410: Advanced Liquid Centrifuge

Inventors: Hantao Ji, Adam Cohen, Phil Efthimion, Eric Edlund, Erik Gilson
Abstract: Provided is an advanced liquid centrifuge using differentially rotating cylinders moveable rings at the ends thereof, as well as methods for the separation of fluids, preferably liquids.

US 10,268,165: Electrical Detector For Liquid Metal Leaks

Inventors: Jacob Schwartz
Abstract: A liquid metal leak detector system including a direct current (DC) power supply and a plurality of analog to digital converters connected to the DC power supply. Each converter includes a liquid metal switch, where the liquid metal switch is closed in event of a liquid metal leak since the liquid metal leak causes electrical continuity between a conductive sheeting and a housing for liquid metal. The converter also includes a comparator connected to both the liquid metal switch for converting an analog signal into a digital signal, wherein the digital signal is configured such that a high signal constitutes no leak and a low signal constitutes a leak. An AND gate is also connected to each of the plurality of converters for combining all of the digital signals output from the converters, the AND gate configured such that the AND gate outputs a high signal if all of its inputs are high and a low signal if any input is low. 

US 10,229,756: In Space Startup Method for Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines

Inventors: Michael A. Paluszek, Eric M. Ham, Yosef Razin, Samuel A. Cohen

The invention is for a startup system for nuclear fusion engines in space. The combustion of hydrogen and oxygen produces heat that is used by a heat engine to produce electricity. This can be supplemented by electricity from other operating engines. The exhaust from the combustion is condensed and electrolyzed to produce hydrogen and oxygen once the engine is in operation. This provides a constant source of energy for future startups. The engine is started up at partial power in electricity generation mode and this power replaces the power from the combustion as it grows. The combustor uses the same heat engine as the nuclear engine uses for power generation.

US 10,162,138: Self Aligning Deflector Device for Transmission Line Offset Correction

Inventors: Michael G. Gomez, Cara A. Bagley, Benjamin J. Tobias, Ali Zolfaghari, Alexandros Gerakis, Mary Angelique Demetillo
Abstract: Disclosed is a self-aligning mirror device for transmission line offset correction. The disclosed self-aligning mechanism automatically adjusts deflectors to couple radiation between two or more offset waveguides or optical fibers. 

US 9,883,682: Method and Apparatus for Pasteurizing Shell Eggs Using Radio Frequency Heating

Inventors: David J. Geveke, Andrew B. W. Bigley, Christopher D. Brunkhorst
Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) energy is used to quickly heat the yolk portion of a shell egg. An anode and corresponding cathode are applied to each individual egg. As the egg is selectively and systematically rotated, RF energy and a stream of cooling fluid (preferably water) are simultaneously applied to the egg. This initiates pasteurization of the egg yolk while maintaining a low temperature in the heat-sensitive albumen (egg white) thus preventing denaturation of the albumen. Immediately after the RF yolk heating process, the egg is placed in a hot water bath designed to rapidly pasteurize the albumen as well as to minimize heat loss from the yolk and pasteurize any portion of the yolk that is not already pasteurized through the RF yolk heating process.

US 9,822,769: Method and Apparatus to Produce High Specific Impulse and Moderate Thrust from a Fusion-Powered Rocket Engine

Inventors: Samuel A. Cohen, Gary A. Pajer, Michael A. Paluszek, Yosef S. Razin

Abstract: A system and method for producing and controlling high thrust and desirable specific impulse from a continuous fusion reaction is disclosed. The resultant relatively small rocket engine will have lower cost to develop, test, and operate than the prior art, allowing spacecraft missions throughout the planetary system and beyond. The rocket engine method and system includes a reactor chamber and a heating system for heating a stable plasma to produce fusion reactions in the stable plasma. Magnets produce a magnetic field that confines the stable plasma. A fuel injection system and a propellant injection system are included. The propellant injection system injects cold propellant into a gas box at one end of the reactor chamber, where the propellant is ionized into a plasma. The propellant and the fusion products are directed out of the reactor chamber through a magnetic nozzle and are detached from the magnetic field lines producing thrust.

US 9,767,925: Method, Apparatus, and System to Reduce Neutron Production in Small, Clean Fusion Reactors

Inventor: Samuel A. Cohen
Abstract: The invention is for a system and method to reduce neutron production from a deuterium-helium-3 (D-3He) fueled, steady-state, small nuclear fusion reactor. The reactor employs a field-reversed configuration (FRC) magnetic confinement scheme and an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) that produces periodic, co-streaming, energetic ion beams which heat the plasma. This is accomplished through radio-frequency (RF) heating, which can effectively heat and maintain the plasma. use of this method will lessen damage to and activation of reactor components and, in doing so, can advance the development of fusion reactors for electrical, power and propulsion applications by alleviating the need for both nuclear-materials and tritium-breeding-technology testing programs.

US 9,329,487: Objective for EUV Microscopy, EUV Lithography and X-Ray Imaging

Inventors: Manfred Bitter, Kenneth W. Hill, Philip Efthimion

Disclosed is an imaging apparatus for EUV spectroscopy, EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging. This new imaging apparatus could, in particular, make significant contributions to EUV lithography at wavelengths in the range from 10 to 15 nm, which is presently being developed for the manufacturing of the next-generation integrated circuits. The disclosure provides a novel adjustable imaging apparatus that allows for the production of stigmatic images in x-ray imaging, EUV imaging, and EUVL. The imaging apparatus of the present invention incorporates additional properties compared to previously described objectives. The use of a pair of spherical reflectors containing a concave and convex arrangement has been applied to a EUV imaging system to allow for the image and optics to all be placed on the same side of a vacuum chamber. Additionally, the two spherical reflector segments previously described have been replaced by two full spheres or, more precisely, two spherical annuli, so that the total photon throughput is largely increased. Finally, the range of permissible Bragg angles and possible magnifications of the objective has been largely increased.

US 9,318,228: Production of Radionuclide Molybdenum 99 In a Distributed and SITU Fashion

Inventors: Charles A. Gentile, Adam B. Cohen, George Ascione

A method and apparatus for producing Mo-99 from Mo-100 for the use of the produced Mo-99 in a Tc-99m generator without the use of uranium is presented. Both the method and apparatus employ high energy gamma rays for the transformation of Mo-100 to Mo-99. The high energy gamma rays are produced by exposing a metal target to a moderated neutron output of between 6 MeV and 14 MeV. The resulting Mo-99 spontaneously decays into Tc-99m and can therefore be used in a Tc-99m generator.

US 8,973,492: Method and apparatus for pasteurizing shell eggs using radio frequency heating

Inventors: David J. Geveke, Andrew B. W. Bigley Jr., Christopher D. Brunkhorst

Radio frequency (RF) energy is used to quickly heat the yolk portion of a shell egg. An anode and corresponding cathode are applied to each individual egg. As the egg is selectively and systematically rotated, RF energy and a stream of cooling fluid (preferably water) are simultaneously applied to the egg. This initiates pasteurization of the egg yolk while maintaining a low temperature in the heat-sensitive albumen (egg white) thus preventing denaturation of the albumen. Immediately after the RF yolk heating process, the egg is placed in a hot water bath designed to rapidly pasteurize the albumen as well as to minimize heat loss from the yolk and pasteurize any portion of the yolk that is not already pasteurized through the RF yolk heating process.

US 8,723,422: Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

Inventors: Kevin David Diamant, Yevgeny Raitses, Nathaniel Joseph Fisch

Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.